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One of the main functions of firewalls and routers is IP address spoofing for the purpose of security.

In the case of a internet web server the world needs to be able to find this server thru the use of DNS Servers which contain the IP address of the web server. Where some security for web servers can then be put in place would be if the application server, database servers or backup servers did not have IP addresses that is public facing or they should have spoofed IP addresses.


OC-1 - OC-768

Short for Optical Carrier, used to specify the speed of networks conforming to the SONET standard.

SONET - Synchronous Optical Networking is a WAN transport protocol that supports transporting packets from different circuits over fiber optic cable.

SONET is a transport protocol for Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) frames and is available at various bandwidths, which are denoted with an Optical Carrier (OC) level.

For example. OC-1 transmits it's payload at approximately 50 Mbps. Whereas OC-192

is at  10 Gbps Ethernet and transmits it payload at 9.6 Gbps.

SONET is designed for use 10 Gigabit Ethernet such as 10GBaseSW (40 kilometers), 10GBaseLW (25 kilometers) and 10GBaseZW (300 meters).  The 10GBase W specification designates use with SONET networks.

The table shows the  speeds for common

OC levels.

OC =  Speed

OC-1 = 51.85  Mbps

OC-3 = 155.52 Mbps

OC-12 = 622.08 Mbps

OC-24 = 1.244  Gbps

OC-48 = 2.488 Gbps

OC-192 = 9.952 Gbps

OC-255 = 13.21 Gbps

OC-768 = 39.12 Gbps